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THE CHINESE EXPERIENCE
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Topics: Socialism, Proletariat, Revolutions, Communism. Confrontation, class consciousness, and the labor process : studies in proletarian class formation. The origins of Polish socialism, the history and ideas of the first Polish socialist party, On cover: In commemoration of the 90th anniversary of the birth of Lenin Topics: Socialism, Social conflict, Dictatorship of the proletariat. For the development of the detective novel, standardized social conditions are necessary. As long as a standardized social environment is not present, there will be no detective novel.
Those social or environmental conditions are broadly speaking the development of a scientific civilization, the intellect, and an analytical mind. And strictly speaking, the crime and the way of searching become scientific, the arrest and the trial are held on the basis of reliable proof, and written laws preserve the order of the state.
For Hirabayashi a central aspect of the detective novel is scientific rationality. He argues that the detective story could not attain popularity before the s in Japan because readers were not yet trained to deal with the science of the detective since Japanese ideology was too long nurtured in an unscientific environment.
Further, it is interesting to note that Hirabayashi connects the legal system with the order of the state suggesting that the state is complicit in deciding who and what to criminalize as a way to legitimize its own ruling power. Besides such institutions as the court, Hirabayashi connects the rise of the detective novel to the broader context of science and capitalist development penetrating everyday life. If a detective story depicts a town like Chiba as its setting and discusses a millionaire widow as one of its inhabitants, this will fail because one can easily verify that no such widow was living in Chiba.
Hirabayashi continues that with the progress of civilization improving scientific and methodological reasoning, together with capitalist development centralizing wealth and creating various daily life phenomena of wealth and luxury, the ideal environment emerges for detective stories to attract readers. In , Hirabayashi wrote that journals and newspapers have embraced the detective genre. Finally, from a Marxist perspective Hirabayashi located a potential danger between journalism, technology, detective stories, and the alienated masses on the one hand and capitalism on the other.
He explains that through new technological possibilities the market determines the direction of journalism - often the basis for detective stories such as murders based on true stories jitsuwa — which shapes the dominant ideology of the masses. These detective stories play with the fears of the alienated middle-class for the unknown. Anyone in society can potentially be a criminal.
Only with a Marxist lens, Hirabayashi argued, will the writer of detective stories be capable of pushing the genre in directions that reveal the real problems of society. In this view, potential value that can be extracted from the commodity moves journalism.
According to Hirabayashi proletarian literature is no exception and operates within the logic of the market. Not only does journalism reflects the demands of readers, in fact it produces their demands. From the Meiji period onward, Shanghai gradually became a reoccurring trope in Japanese literature. By the late s, Japanese citizens formed the largest group of foreign inhabitants to the extent that Shanghai was often treated as a Japanese province.
Newspapers in Nagasaki reported daily on events in Shanghai and letters sent from Japan to Shanghai bearing the address Nagasaki prefecture Shanghai city Nagasaki-ken, Shanghai-shi , would arrive without a problem.
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For some authors such as Akutagawa, searching for an ancient China in the classics he had studied, Shanghai was an unpleasant city spoiled by rapid modernization. But for others Shanghai was a place to escape to and find freedom away from the stress and pressure of life in Japan proper. In addition, the political instability in China and the cosmopolitan allure of Shanghai attracted many Japanese writers. There I became friends with people from all over the world and from various classes.
I plan to meet these people again in my novel s. He learned about Shanghai from people he met as he gathered information for his fictional work.
Dr Sally Sargeson
Even the dogs have syphilis. From the point of view of proletarian writers who were eager to critique Shin-kankakuha New-Sensationalist opponents such as Yokomitsu Riichi - whose novel Shanhai Shanghai, is now the canonical work on Shanghai — for failing to address core problematics of Shanghai, namely capitalist exploitation and how to resist it. He wrote of his colleague Muramatsu that he is a bourgeois China connoisseur neglecting the proletarian class in his novel Evil City.
However, that is because to you China always appears as a mysterious country, as a large country with easy-going people. You are part of the curiosity-seeking group, and you do not look at the lives other than those of the bourgeoisie and petit-bourgeoisie. That is because Muramatsu-kun is a China connoisseur who has a very bourgeois-like Chinese view. This created a sense of recognition among readers many of whom had visited Shanghai or knew these places from articles and photographs published frequently in the media. Below, guidebook Shanhai annai Shanghai Guide, describing popular localities in Shanghai supplemented with images.
These images invoke among readers associations of crime based on narratives from sensational crime journalism and detective stories. Combining geographical maps with descriptions and images of popular localities of Shanghai formed a system of referentiality for readers linked to descriptions of the same localities in sensational crime journalism and detective stories.
Finally, he states that the real criminals are the capitalists and the detective needs to reveal their crimes using proletarian science. These criminals are often forced to commit crimes to deal with their poverty and to make a living. Many of these stories take place in Shanghai or deal with China.
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This reappearance of characters creates a sense of interconnectedness among the stories and allows one to read the stories as a larger narrative. Each story involves a trick; either a missing item being found, people tricked with counterfeit money, or tricks involving facial changes. Nevertheless, these stories lack a clear depiction of class antagonism and therefore are considered the least proletarian in Shanghai Night Stories.
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