She reigned until and died without children.
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Parliament had planned for this contingency and decreed that the crown should then go to Sophia, Electress of Hanover, the granddaughter of James VI and I through his daughter Elizabeth. The Hanoverian government as it had become known successfully quashed this, only after months of manouevring and several major battles, in James the Old Pretender returned to France a disappointed man.
The Last of the Mohicans/Chapter 27
The collective Jacobite forces took the Hanoverian army by surprise and marched as far south as Derby, only miles from London, before losing their nerve, halting and then withdrawing. This turned into an increasingly desperate retreat all the way back into Scotland and then into the Highlands where, at the notorious Battle of Culloden on 16 April , the Jacobite forces were decimated, survivors being hunted down and killed.
The rising led to a brutal backlash in which vast areas of the Highlands were cleared of their suspected treacherous inhabitants, the kilt and other signs of the clan system were banned, all the ringleaders were arrested and many hanged, drawn and quartered. Charlie knew from bitter experience where that led Culloden , suspected most of the surviving Highland chiefs would be reluctant to support him, and realised he was, in any case, only being used as a pawn.
He insisted on significant French forces to support him and that he lead an assault on England. London or nothing. Repeated suggestions that he lead an assault on Scotland, Ireland or bizarrely Canada, were swept aside. In the event, Charlie played no part in the decisive events of , but McLynn is fascinating about his character he had become a grumpy alcoholic , the collapse of the Jacobite cause in England and Scotland when Charlie took a mistress he lost many of his Puritanical followers , and the intense and frustrating negotiations, as seen from both sides.
By an embittered alcoholic. McLynn devotes a chapter to this battle where the Royal Navy defeated the French Mediterranean fleet in a running fight coming out around the south coast of Spain, which ended with the French survivors limping into Lagos Bay, Portugal. This ended all hopes of a Grand Invasion plan which required multiple French naval forces to fend off the Royal Navy in the English Channel and forced the French to lower their ambitions. Still, they had built hundreds of flat-bottomed barges in the Channel ports and just needed the Atlantic fleet to protect them.
Pitt and his cabinet knew there was a plan to invade and the location of the barges, and so he ordered the Navy to enforce a blockade on the key Atlantic port of Brest. McLynn is full of admiration for Admiral Edward Hawke, who spent months itching for a fight, compared to his timid opposite number, the Comte de Conflans. Finally the French were sighted exiting the port, word got back to Hawke in Torbay and he gathered as many ships as possible to sail south.
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Both fleets struggled to manage stormy Atlantic weather, but Hawke chased the French back towards their port in the Gulf of Morbihan, attacking the stragglers first then engaging with the main fleet. McLynn gives a vivid and terrifying account of the battle, which amounted to huge ships firing at virtually point blank range into other huge ships, destroying rigging, obliterating human bodies, turning the decks into bloody slaughterhouses.
Result: the British fleet sank or ran aground six ships, captured one and scattered the rest, giving the Royal Navy one of its greatest ever victories. The Battle of Quiberon Bay a led the French to abandon any plans for an invasion, b established the Royal Navy as the most powerful in the world c meant the French were from that point onwards hampered in trying to send provisions and troops to the other theatres of war, namely Canada.
Although French forces fought on in Canada for another few years, they were never able to receive the reinforcements of troops or provisions which they British did, which was weakening in itself but also demoralising. But the key element was French ceding of almost all their North American territory to the British. And in many ways the treaty merely reflected the reality on the ground: the Royal Navy ruled the seas and so made much easier, or maybe inevitable, British overlordship of America and India.
The British beat Pontiac and his forces after a long struggle and proceeded to build forts to protect the frontier with the Indians, but then made the fateful decision of taxing the colonists to pay for their own defence.
The American town of Pittsburgh is named after him. This is particularly noticeable in his enthusiastic criticisms of almost all the main characters:. His long descriptions of landscape often read like adventure fiction. There are several extended descriptions of the Canadian landscape, lush and verdant in summer, turning to a white inferno of snowdrifts and frostbite in winter. After leaving the northern end of Missisquoi Lake, the Rangers entered a spruce bog, with water at least a foot deep and sometimes deeper, where the current had carved brook-like channels.
For nine days they splashed through mud and icy water, often stumbling and sometimes falling full-length into the noisome tarn. There was no firm ground anywhere, and the entire area was plashy marsh, with water everywhere between the trees, concealing irregularities in the ground. Young and choked trees of every height provided invisible tripwires; huge trunks lay rotting in the water with small spruces sprouting thickly along them; there were dead branches sharp as razors concealed in the water and if a man trod on them, he would be raked from ankle to thigh on jagged points.
It seemed as if living malevolent branches clutched and tore at their clothes, gored them through the holes, plucked the caps from their heads and tried to scratch their eyes out. In many places this long work feels more like a novel than a work of history, and certainly has more of a writerly sensibility than a scholarly, historical one. The book is not only an interesting conspectus of the 18th century as seen through the prism of one year, but an entertaining tour of the English language as well. The Death of Wolfe by Benjamin West. The whole thing is available online at Project Gutenberg, and just reading through the chapter headings and summary of contents gives you a good sense of the story and issues.
SparkNotes: The Last of the Mohicans
Even this only focuses on the global Anglo-French rivalry i. All quotes and references are to the Pimlico paperback edition. Pocock — served in the Royal Navy and was present at D-Day, before moving on to a long and successful career as a journalist and author of popular history and travel books.
In fact, Pocock mentions various heirlooms of the admiral which had come down in the family, including rings set with bloodstone to indicate the wounds he received at the Battle of Pondicherry. Pocock ignores the numerous battles of the war which took place in Europe, between Britain and her allies Prussia and Portugal, and France and her allies Austria and after Spain.
Instead, Battle for Empire focuses on colourful descriptions of fights in exotic locations, predominantly India and North America. The book is divided into seven long chapters, most of which start with biographical sketches of the key players involved and use contemporary diaries, journals and letters to give a lively sense of the central figures in each conflict. It is popular, ripping yarn history at its best. This prompted the British naval campaign to retake Calcutta and then capture the French base of Chandernagar before the Nawab was brought to battle at Plassey on 23 June Plassey is always referred to as a turning point in British control of India.
Pocock humanises his story with plenty of description of Clive, his letters and personality, and that of his fellow and rival officers. Note how the French territory form a complete barrier to westward expansion of the British colonies. For the build-up to and execution of the key battle to take Quebec from the French on 13 September , the only visual aid the book supplies is this contemporary diagram below. It is as difficult to read reproduced below as it is in the book where, even worse, the fold of the book cuts through it, making the larger scale insert map at the top indecipherable.
After quite a lot of hard study I managed to make out the tiny writing and sort of figure out what happened at the battle of Quebec, but this book would have been soooo much better with a proper complement of clear, explanatory, modern maps. An Authentic Plan of the River St. Together they launched an unsuccessful invasion of Portugal. The campaign against Havana took place between March to August Instead, faulty intelligence suggested they had to first take the massive fort overlooking the city, El Morro and this turned into a protracted and painful siege lasting months, during which every drop of fresh water had to be carried manually from freshwater streams miles away, across burning rocks and scrub, to a force which was often pinned down by fire from the fort.
Eventually it was taken using the medieval strategy of mining beneath it and setting off an enormous explosion then rushing the resulting breach in the wall. Once possessed of the fort, the general leading British forces, George Keppel, 3rd Earl of Albemarle, issued an ultimatum to the governor of the city. When the latter hesitated, Albemarle launched a sustained bombardment forcing him to accept.
The British entered Havana on 14 August They had obtained possession of the most important harbour in the Spanish West Indies along with military equipment, 1,, Spanish pesos and merchandise valued around 1,, Spanish pesos. The Battle of Manila was fought from 24 September to 6 October , and took the same shape as the Havana campaign, except on a smaller scale and not dragging on for so long.
This was reflected in the fact that the British lost only five officers and 30 other ranks killed, and only wounded. The city remained under British rule for 18 months but was returned to Spain in April under the Treaty of Paris, which formally ended the war. The battles were often a bloody shambles. They were told these were only flimsy palisades but they turned out to be an impenetrable wall of hewn fir tree logs reaching up to eight foot tall, with all the roots and branches sticking outwards like spikes and French musketeers firing from every cranny.
The handful that made it over the palisade were immediately bayoneted on the other side. It was a bloodbath. When various leaders fall like Howe or Wolfe , eye witnesses record numerous officers and soldiers shedding tears at the loss.
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Or — simpler explanation — men were just more sensitive and emotional back then. Among them were Captain Speke and his year-old son Billy. As both men were being carried below, the quarter-master who was carrying the boy, was killed outright by a cannon ball. He cried bitterly, squeezed me by the hand and begged me to leave him for one half-hour… When I returned to him, he appeared as he ever after did, perfectly calm and serene. Not only sentimental tears but chivalry and politesse was displayed by fine ladies and gentlemen, even in the midst of the conflict. The Governor of Louisbourg, the Chevalier Drucour, sent a message to Amherst that he would be happy to send a French surgeon under a flag of truce to attend any wounded British officer.
Amherst responded by forwarding messages into the town from captured French soldiers. He sent Madame Drucour a present of pineapples from the West Indies and she sent him bottles of French wine. These very 18th century sensibilities were all the more shocked and outraged by the behaviour of the Red Indians, or native Americans, mostly allied with the French, especially their scalping of the dead, and especially their scalping of women and children.
After struggling miles through forest and swamp they were ambushed by French and Indian forces, tried but failed to form up in the traditional square and over men were slaughtered, including Braddock himself. Wherever the British lost to Franco-Indian forces, captives were liable to be horrifically tortured before being scalped. Pocock retells a steady trickle of atrocities with the same emphasis on the actual, human level of the experience as he brings to his descriptions of strategy and battle.
British soldiers, throughout the North American campaign, were terrified of falling into the hands of the Indians.
Related Monarch Notes on Coopers Last of the Mohicans
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