These effects are not only limited to direct changes of climate conditions but will also include indirect effects like changes in hydrological cycles or land use related management. Successful adaptation and management, therefore, needs to be geared towards the maintenance of environmental integrity, the protection against unwanted or even hazardous processes, and the exploitation of beneficial opportunities in response to actual or expected change. Knowledge from landscape ecology can help to guide the process of management from a static equilibrium view to a more adaptive actors- and participation-oriented approach.
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Two symposia were held at the 8. IALE World Congress from 18 to 23 August in Beijing, China, to strengthen the transfer of knowledge from landscape ecology into adaptation planning.
At the symposia, principles for adaptation to and managing of change were discussed, and it was realised that there is still some ground to cover before common general guidelines can be formulated. In the two mentioned symposia, investigations about key aspects of climate change adaptation in landscape systems were presented. They illustrate some of the current research activities in relation to 1 the investigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration problems in the context of landscape and land uses, 2 the development of new methods and models to investigate potential impacts, 3 the assessment of climate change impacts including scenario approaches, and 4 the identification of adequate response options for landscape management.
There is an obvious overlap between the analysis of greenhouse gas GHG emissions and carbon sequestration in the context of land use systems and management options for landscape or land use systems in practice. Land use and land management changes are key drivers of GHG-emissions e.
They initiate changes in land cover and influence carbon dioxide and methane emissions as well as many other factors of the landscape balance and household. Plant, soil, and water balances have considerable leverage effects for the limitation of GHG in the atmosphere. However, the question remains how these aspects of mitigation can be included in adapted landscape management and which measures are adequate and feasible e.
There is a multitude of assessment approaches and related methods for climate impact analysis. Most methods are developed for specific purposes.
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- Diverse landscapes are more productive and adapt better to climate change.
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Both basic and applied research is working hard to link the different components of landscape systems e. Different records or indicators are used including actual, historic, static, and dynamic aspects of observation. However, the need for cross-sectoral and integrated methods still persists.
Landscape model systems are challenged by the fact that more complex methods will have a higher need for scientific verification and validation. Another key aspect is the relevance of methods and models for decision-making.
The contributions of Tao et al. Previous research predominantly addressed short-term effects of biodiversity in small experimental plots planted with few randomly selected plant species. These studies have shown that species-poor plant assemblages function less well and produce less biomass than species rich systems. Researchers participating in the University Research Priority Programme "Global Change and Biodiversity" of the University of Zurich now demonstrate similar positive effects of biodiversity in real-world ecosystems in which mechanisms different from the ones in artificial experimental plots are at play.
Using different 1-km2 landscapes that spanned the entire area of Switzerland, they investigated the role of the diversity of plant, bird and butterfly species for the production of biomass, which was estimated from satellite data. The analyses showed that landscapes with a greater biodiversity were more productive and that their productivity showed a lower year-to-year variation. The satellite data analysed by the scientists revealed that the annual growing period increased in length throughout the last 16 years, an effect that can be explained by climate warming.
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The prolongation in growing season was considerably larger in more biodiverse landscapes. These relations were robust and remained important even when a range of other drivers such as temperature, rainfall, solar irradiation, topography, of the specific composition of the landscapes were considered.
Materials provided by University of Zurich. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News.
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Diverse landscapes are more productive and adapt better to climate change -- ScienceDaily
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