A small group took part in the conquest that brought the Khanate of Khiva under Russian control. Their largest military campaign was the Russo-Turkish War — , on both the Balkan and the Caucasus fronts. Famous achievements in the numerous Battles of Shipka , the defence of Bayazet and finally, in decisive and victorious Battle of Kars where the Cossacks were the first to enter.
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During the Russo-Japanese War — , the host mobilised six cavalry regiments, five plastun battalions and one battery to the distant region of Russia. The Cossacks also carried out the second strategical objective, the colonisation of the Kuban land.
In total, the host owned more than six million tithes, of which 5. Upon reaching the age of 17, a Cossack would be given between 16 and 30 tithes for cultivation and personal use. With the natural growth of the population, the average land that a Cossack owned decreased from 23 tithes in s to 7. Such arrangements, however ensured that the colonisation and the cultivation would be very rational. The military purpose of the Kuban was echoed in its administration pattern. Rather than a traditional Imperial Guberniya governorate with uyezds districts , the territory was administered by the Kuban Oblast which was split into otdels regions, which in counted seven.
Each otdel would have its own sotnias which in turn would be split into stanitsas and khutors. The Ataman commander for each region was not only responsible for the military preparation of the Cossacks, but for the local administration duties. Local Stanitsa and Khutor atamans were elected, but approved by the atamans of the otdel. These, in turn, were appointed by the supreme ataman of the host, who was in turn appointed directly by the Russian Emperor. Prior to , this system of legislature in the Oblast remained a robust military one and all legal decisions were carried out by the stanitsa ataman and two elected judges.
Afterwards, however, the system was bureaucratised and the judicial functions became independent of the stanitsas. The more liberal policy of the Kuban was directly mirrored in the living standards of the people. One of the central features of this was education. Indeed, the first schools were known to have existed since the migration of the Black Sea Cossacks, and by , the host had one male high school and 30 elementary schools. In all, by , the number of schools in rural stanitsas increased to During the early twentieth century contacts between Kuban and Ukraine were established and clandestine Ukrainian organizations appeared in Kuban.
Ornamental containers gaziri which had originally contained single loading measures of gunpowder for muzzle-loading muskets, were worn on the breasts of the kaftans. The kaftan had an open front, showing a red waistcoat. Officers wore silver epaulettes, braiding and ferrules, the latter in their czerkeskas.
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Tall black fur hats were worn on all occasions with red cloth tops and for officers silver lace. A white metal scroll was worn on the front of the fur hat. A whip was used instead of spurs. On active service during World War I the Kuban Cossacks retained their distinctive dress but with a black waistcoat replacing the conspicuous red one and without the silver ornaments or red facings of full dress.
A black felt cloak bourki was worn in bad weather both in peace-time and on active service. The Kuban and Terek Cossacks of the Imperial Escort Konvoi wore a special gala uniform; including a scarlet kaftan edged with gold braid and a white waistcoat. During the Russian Revolution and the resulting Civil War , the Cossacks found themselves conflicted in their loyalties. In October , simultaneously the Kuban Soviet Republic and the Kuban Rada were formed, both of whom proclaimed their rights to rule the Kuban, and shortly afterwards the Rada declared a Kuban National Republic but was soon dispersed by Bolshevik forces.
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Although most of the Cossacks initially sided with the Rada, many joined the Bolsheviks, who promised them autonomy. In March , after Lavr Kornilov 's successful offensive, the Kuban Rada placed itself under his authority. However, after his death in June a federative union was signed with the Ukrainian government of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky , after which many Cossacks left to return home or defected to the Bolsheviks.
In addition to that, there was an internal struggle among the Kuban cossacks between loyalty towards the Russian Volunteer Army of Denikin and Ukrainian nationalist forces. On 6 November , Denikin's forces surrounded the Rada, and with the help of Ataman Alexander Filimonov arrested ten of its members, including the Ukrainophile , P. Kurgansky, who was the premier of the Rada, and publicly hanged one of them for treason. Many Cossacks joined Denikin and fought in the ranks of the Volunteer Army.
In December , after Denikin's defeat and as it became clear that the Bolsheviks would overrun the Kuban, some of the pro-Ukrainian groups attempted to restore the Rada and to break away from the Volunteer Army and fight the Bolsheviks in alliance with Ukraine;  however, by early the Red Army took most of Kuban, and both the Rada and Denikin were evicted.
The first collaborators were formed from Soviet Cossack POWs and deserters after the consequences of the Red Army's early defeats in the course of Operation Barbarossa.
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After the horrors of Collectivization and Decossackization , in summer of , many of the Germans reaching Kuban were greeted as liberators. For example, Major Kononov deserted on 22 August with an entire regiment and was instrumental in organizing Cossack volunteers in the Wehrmacht. However, most volunteers came after the Germans reached the Cossack homelands in summer of While there were several smaller Cossack detachments in the Wehrmacht since , the 1st Cossack Division made up of Don, Terek and Kuban Cossacks was formed in This division was further augmented by the 2nd Cossack Cavalry Division formed in December Both divisions participated in hostilities against Tito's partisans in Yugoslavia.
At the end of the war, the Cossack collaborators retreated to Italy and surrendered to the British army, but, under the Yalta agreement , were forcibly repatriated with the rest of the collaborators to the Soviet authorities and some executed. Despite the defections that were taking place, the majority of the Cossacks remained loyal to the Red Army. In the opening phase of the war, during the German advance towards Moscow, Cossacks became extensively used for the raids behind enemy lines. The most famous of these took place during the Battle of Smolensk under the command of Lev Dovator , whose 3rd Cavalry Corps consisted of the 50th and 53rd Cavalry divisions from the Kuban and Terek Cossacks, which were mobilised from the Northern Caucasus.
The high professionalism that the Cossacks under Dovator and Belov both generals would later be granted the title Hero of the Soviet Union and their units raised to a Guards elite status ensured that many new units would be formed.
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In the end, if the Germans during the whole war only managed to form two Cossack Corps, the Red Army in already had The Kuban Cossacks were allocated to the 10th, 12th and 13th Corps. However, the most famous Kuban Cossack unit would be the 17th Cossack Corps under the command of general Nikolay Kirichenko.
During one particular attack, Cossacks destroyed up to 1, enemy soldiers and officers, they took prisoners, seized 18 artillery pieces and 25 mortars. The 5th and 9th Romanian Cavalry divisions fled in panic, and the th German Infantry division, carrying large losses, hastily departed to the left bank of the river Ei. During the opening phase of the Battle of Stalingrad , when the Germans overran the Kuban, the majority of the Cossack population, long before the Germans began their agitation with Krasnov and Shkuro, became involved in Partisan activity.
After the German defeat at Stalingrad , the 4th Guards Kuban Cossack Corps, strengthened by tanks and artillery, broke through the German lines and liberated Mineralnye Vody , and Stavropol. For the latter part of the war, although the Cossacks did prove especially useful in reconnaissance and rear guards, the war did show that the age of horse cavalry had come to an end.
The famous 4th Guards Kuban Cossack Regiment which took part in heavy fighting in the course of the liberation of Southern Ukraine and Romania was allowed to proudly march on the Red Square in the famous Victory parade of Following the war, the Cossack regiments, along with remaining cavalry were disbanded and removed from the Soviet armed forces as they were thought to be obsolete.
At this time some pro-Ukrainian sentiment emerged among some Kuban Cossack leaders. For example, when in May Cossack leader Yevhen Nahai was arrested and accused of plotting a coup, another Cossack leader kish otaman Pyuypenko threatened to call for support for Ukraine if Nahai's rights were violated.
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A march of cossack cavalry from eastern Ukraine to Kuban was met with some enthusiasm by locals. The Cossacks have actively participated in some of the more abrupt political developments following the dissolution of the Soviet Union : South Ossetia , Crimea , Kosovo , Transnistria and Abkhazia. The latter conflict was in particular special for the Kuban Cossacks, initially a number of Cossacks fled from the de-Cossackization repressions of the s and assimilated with the Abkhaz people.
Six months later, they were informed the cover was sneaked in and played during the closing credits of the movie and an outtake reel on the home release. Zuul was one of the minions of Gozer in the first movie. The post credits teaser was a last minute addition right before the movie went into production.
Katie Dippold pitched it among rewrites and Feig approved of it. The credits end with a dedication to the late Harold Ramis. In early versions of the script, the Ghostbusters received Ecto-2, a high tech RV, from the government to continue their busting in style. Freelance artist Tully Summers designed one concept of it as transforming vehicle that could deploy turrets, motorcycles and a race car. It was eventually written out. In the Ghostbusters Annual , on page 4, in panel 4, in the left corner, is a motorcycle that appears to be visually inspired by Kevin's Honda CL77 Scrambler dubbed Ecto In Ghostbusters International 2 , on page 5, in panel 5, to Ray's left is a medium sized frame with an instagram photo posted by Melissa McCarthy on August 25, in reaction to the Girl Power hash tag.
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It featured cast and crew from the Ghostbusters movie. Both were also recently employed as easter eggs on the new Proton Pack in teaser posters of the the movie. In Ghostbusters International 3, panel 5, the four waiting outside are visually based on the team in the Ghostbusters Movie. In Ghostbusters International 5 , page 4, in panel 4, below the Twinkies is the collectible Ghostbusters pen that came with ticket sales of Ghostbusters in Japan.
In Ghostbusters International 6 , page 5, Miguel Castillo admits he thought the Ghostbusters were all men - perhaps a tongue in cheek nod to the general reactions to the new movie. In Ghostbusters International 7 , page 17, In panel 6, on the whiteboard, is the equations written by Erin Gilbert in the Columbia University lecture hall at the start of the movie. In Ghostbusters International 7, page 18, in panel 4, there is are Ecto Cooler cans on top of the boxes In Ghostbusters International 7, page 20, in panel 3, on the right, is the Trap from the Ghostbusters movie In Ghostbusters International 7, page 20, in panel 3, the Twinkie on the ground appears to the Key Lime Slime Twinkie offered during the theatrical run of the movie In Ghostbusters International 8 , page 1, in panel 3 and 5, atop the console, is a can of the Ecto Cooler.
In Ghostbusters International 8, page 4, panel 2, in the upper left corner, the tray of Ecto Cooler cans atop a box of Cracker Jacques In Ghostbusters International 8, page 4, panel 2, on the whiteboard, is the equations written by Erin in the Columbia lecture hall at the start of the Ghostbusters movie. In Ghostbusters International 8, page 4, panel 2, the Trap from the Ghostbusters movie In Ghostbusters International 8, page 5, panel 1, the green bucket is J.
Burgers' Green Smoothie offered during promotion of the movie. In Ghostbusters International 8, page 17, panel 3, to the right on the shelf is the P.
In Ghostbusters International 9, page 20, panel 4, on the far right corner is the Containment Unit from the movie. In Ghostbusters International 11 , page 20, panel 7, under Ray, are Rowan's drawings of himself from his copy of "Ghosts From Our Past" in the movie. The drawing of giant Rowan grabbing people opposite of the 'Open the Barrier' page The close up drawing of Rowan's face opposite of 'The Fourth Cataclysm' page In Ghostbusters Annual , on page 7, in panel 3, on the far left is a menu with several items from J.
Meters are some from the movie. In Ghostbusters Annual , on page In panel 2, on the top shelf between Ray's word balloons is the Ecto-1 toy mint. In panel 2, on the shelf behind Ray is a Trap from the movie. In panel 2, on the far right, on the tower monitor screen is the Ghost News website from Chapter 12 of the movie. In panel 2, on the cork board, top right, a scratch and win lottery ticket with Ghostbusters artwork seen in Fall in BC, Canada.
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